Blood pressure in cats and dogs. A clinical manual

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A practical and simple manual on the methods and techniques to measure blood pressure in cats and dogs, how to interpret the results obtained, and the recommended treatments. It includes a brief review of the current official recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), with clear rules and guidelines.

1. Blood pressure Introduction Blood pressure measurement methods Normal values Factors influencing blood pressure Blood pressure regulation mechanisms Immediate regulation: rapid control mechanisms Delayed regulation: mid‑term control mechanisms Delayed regulation: long-term control mechanisms 2. Blood pressure measurement Introduction Blood pressure dynamics Anatomical locations for measuring blood pressure Measurements at the base of the tail Measurements on a forelimb Measurements on a hindlimb Blood pressure measurement protocol for clinical practice 3. Blood pressure measurement techniques Introduction What other methods are available? Doppler systems Oscillometric systems High-definition oscillometry (HDO) Plethysmography and photoplethysmography Which parameters are measured? 4. Arterial hypertension Introduction Values obtained Diseases that cause hypertension in cats and dogs Hypertension and kidney disease Hypertension and obesity Hypertension and endocrine disorders Target organ damage The central nervous system The heart The eyeballs The kidneys The blood vessels 5. Drug treatment of hypertension Introduction Courses of action to reduce blood pressure Modification of cardiac output Control over circulating volume Vasodilation Antihypertensive drugs Adrenergic receptor blockers Calcium channel blockers Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs) Endothelin receptor antagonists Renin inhibitors Direct vasodilators Centrally acting antihypertensives Catecholamine-depleting drugs Aldosterone antagonists 6. Hypotension Introduction Causes of hypotension in cats and dogs Diseases and procedures that cause hypotension Heart failure Diabetic coma or ketoacidosis Hypoadrenocorticism Hypothyroidism Direct alterations in blood vessels 7. Drug treatment of hypotension Introduction Courses of action to increase blood pressure Drugs for treating hypotension Sympathomimetic drugs Phosphodiesterase inhibitors Other cardiac stimulants Fluid therapy solutions References 


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